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Intelligence in Action.....

Artificial Intelligence

Computers and robots have been functioning features in our world for several decades. These manmade devices, or devices that contain computer chips, can seemingly do everything from making your morning coffee to vacuuming to lowering the thermostat for nighttime sleeping. However, does performing simple tasks, such as flipping a switch, mean that these inanimate objects are actually "intelligent" or are they just performing a specific function as they were programmed to do? And, the question arises, will computers and robots be able to evolve and incorporate human like tendencies and the ability to learn from previous experiences into their programming?

There are several definitions of artificial intelligence, with some of the definitions relying on more of a technical or scientific standpoint. To put it simply, artificial intelligence, commonly referred to as AI, is the capability of a device to perform functions that are normally associated with human intelligence. This includes learning through reasoning and gaining additional knowledge through experience. AI can also be seen as an interdisciplinary field where computer science intersects with philosophy, psychology, linguistics, engineering and other fields.

Humans make decisions based upon experience and intuition. The concept behind artificial intelligence is that computers will integrate the necessary components to mimic this human learning process and evolve as they accumulate and process new learning experiences.

There are scientists and college professors that believe that everything we know about computers will change in the next decade and that by 2015 an individual can have an intelligent conversation with the average computer. As in science fiction movies, some individuals are predicting that the future systems will ask you what help you need and automatically call in the appropriate resources to aid you in solving your problem.

The ultimate test of artificial intelligence was developed by Alan Turing, a British mathematician famous for the invention of the theoretical Turing machine and for the deciphering of the German codes during World War II. The Turig's test is basically a very simple test. You place something (or someone) behind a curtain and then have it speak with you. If you cannot determine whether this entity is an actual human or a computer, it passes the test and can be considered a true form of Artificial Intelligence. So far, there has been nothing created that has been able pass this test. This definition also suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge that has been gained from living and experiencing real life. So ultimately the definition of artificial intelligence is a device that can communicate with us jus as another human being can and has the ability to learn and adapt through experience. Scary if you think about it. If these machines with their extensive computing ability can learn from their experiences and then evolve to the next level, would they determine that human life is a detriment to the earth and to their existence?

So where are we with the development of Artificial Intelligence? Although no one has yet been able to capture all of the traits of human intelligence and apply it to an artificial entity, there are countless projects happening throughout the world in the artificial intelligence arena. With the numerous advancements in robotics, there is now an actual body to go along with an artificial mind. NASA is developing a humanoid robot that can assist humans in their space exploration efforts. The military has been deep into the development of robotic soldiers, and robotic vehicles can maneuver around obstacle courses to complete hazardous missions.

People have broken artificial intelligence down into numerous categories and subcategories. But a good foundation for looking at artificial intelligence is breaking it into either strong or weak ai.

Strong artificial intelligence is the area of research that deals with computer based artificial intelligence that can actually reason and solve problems. Strong AI is further broken down into o two sub-cagetories:

•Human-like AI, in which the computer program thinks and reasons much like a human mind.
•Non-human-like AI, in which the computer program develops a totally non-human sentience,
and a non-human way of thinking and reasoning.

Weak artificial intelligence deals with the creation of some form of computer-based artificial intelligence that cannot truly reason and solve problems; such a machine would, in some ways, act as if it were intelligent, but it would not possess true intelligence or sentience.

Looking deeper into AI, it has a number of implications for the advancement of the human race and there are three primary schools of thought with regard to the future of AI: Enablement, Replacement, and Transformation.


Artificial Intelligence  LINKS

These are links to the topics of the course and the larger fields to which they belong —artificial intelligence, cognitive science, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind.

· The Agent Society

· AI, Cognitive Science, and Robotics. Large collection of links. From Stephanie Warrick.

· ~~AI on the Web. From Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig. A very large collection of links. Part of the web supplement to their popular AI textbook.

· AI-Related FAQs. From Mark Kantrowitz.

· AI Repositories and Resource Lists. From Carnegie-Mellon University. Extensive.

· ~~AI, VR, Alife Resources. From Alexander Chislenko. Links on artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and artificial life.

· American Association for Artificial Intelligence

· The Ants: A Community of Microrobots. From James McLurkin.

· ~~The Applied AI Reference Tree of Knowledge. A user-built tree of AI topics and references.

· Artificial Intelligence. From Jonathan Bowen.

· Artificial Intelligence. Well-organized collection of links. From Yossi Mamroud.

· Artificial Intelligence Center. At the Stanford Research Institute.

· Artificial Intelligence FAQ's. From the Institute for Information Technology.

· ~~Artificial Intelligence Information. From Terry H. and Knowledge Technology.

· Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Web Resources. From Philip Davis.

· Artificial Intelligence Links.

· Artificial Intelligence Resources. From the Institute for Information Technology. Very comprehensive set of links.

· Artificial Intelligence Societies and Organizations Directory

· Artificial Intelligence Resources. From the Institute for Information Technology. A very good collection of links.

· Artificial Life "Games" Page. From Luigi Pagliarini and others.

· Artificial Life Online. From MIT Press.

· Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness

· Automated Reasoning Project. From the Australian National University.

· The Brain Project. From Stephen Jones.

· Can Machines Think? Graphical maps of the major positions and arguments from MacroVU. This is the web site for the maps I've been posting in the philosophy foyer during the course.

· Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition. Douglas Hofstadter's research group at Indiana University.

· The Cog Shop. On Cog, a robot being built at MIT.

· Cognitive and Psychological Sciences on the Internet. From Scott Mainwaring.

· ~~Cognitive Science Dictionary. From Michael Dawson and David Medler.

· Cognitive Science Links. From Links2Go.

· Cognitive Science Links. From the York University Department of Science and Technology Studies.

· ~~The Cognitive Science Society

· Complexity and Artificial Life. From Chris Lucas and CALResCo.

· Computational NeuroEngineering Lab. University of Florida.

· Computing Research Repository. Co-sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery, the Los Alamos E-print Archive, and the Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library. Searchable.

· ~~Consciousness. Links and resources. From David Chalmers.

· ~~Consciousness and the Brain: Annotated Bibliography. By Ralph Ellis and Natika Newton.

· Consciousness Studies. Links and resources. From Stephen Jones.

· Constructions of the Mind: Artificial Intelligence and the Humanities. A special issue of the Stanford Humanities Review.

· ~~Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: An Annotated Bibliography. From David Chalmers. Jump to section on ~~philosophy of AI.

· CYC home page. From Cycorp.

· ~~CYC FAQ. From David Whitten.

· ~~Reflections on CYC. By Jorn Barger, author of ~~The Robot Wisdom Pages.

· ~~Daniel Dennett

· ~~Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind. Compiled by Chris Eliasmith. Also contains a ~~link page.

· The Distributed Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. At the University of Massachusetts.

· Ecology of Mind. From Vincent Kelly.

· Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Not the full-text but some content to supplement the print edition.

· Epistemology, Consciousness, and the Mind. From the Sputnik Drug Information Zone. A good collection of links.

· A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind. From Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa.

· Foundation for Neural Networks. Headquartered in Holland.

· Free Online Dictionary of Computing

· ~~The Game AI Page. From Steven Woodcock.

· ~~Glossary of the Philosophy of Mind. From Darren Brierton.

· ~~A Guide to Artificial Intelligence and Law Resources. From Michael Aikenhead.

· Intelligent Software Agents. From Sverker Janson.

· International Neural Network Society

· International Society of Applied Intelligence

· Internet Softbot Research

· The Life Artificial Life Page

· Mind and Body, From Descartes to William James. From Robert Wozniak.

· Mind/Brain Resources. Very good set of links. From Valerie Gray Hardcastle.

· Mind Uploading Page. From Joe Strout.

· MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

· MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Requires registration ("subscription"), at no charge.

· MIT LCS/AI Reading Room Catalog. Searchable catalog of AI literature at MIT.

· The Natural Language Software Registry

· Net Culture Artificial Life & Intelligence Archive. From The Electronic Frontier Foundation.

· Neural Information Processing Systems. At Carnegie Mellon University.

· Neural Network FAQ

· ~~Neural Networks. From Z Solutions in Atlanta.

· Neural Networks Council. From the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

· ~~Neuron Emulation List. Ways to emulate neurons in hardware and software.

· NEuroNet. From Chris Hinton.

· ~~Neuroscience for Kids. From Eric Chudler.

· Neurosciences on the Internet. From Neil Busis.

· Non-Cartesian Cognitive Science

· Online Center for the Cognitive Science of Metaphor. University of Oregon.

· ~~Online Papers on Consciousness. Collected by David Chalmers. Jump to the papers on the ~~philosophy of AI, on the ~~Turing Test, or on the ~~Chinese Room.

· Other courses like this one.

· Minds and Machines. By Ned Block at New York University.

· Minds and Machines. By Alex Byrne at MIT.

· ~~Minds and Machines. By Varol Akman, Bilkent University (Ankara, Turkey).

· ~~Philosophical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence. By Varol Akman, Bilkent University (Ankara, Turkey).

· ~~Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence. From Selmer Bringsjord.

· Philosophy of Mind. By Murat Aydede at the University of Chicago.

· ~~Philosophy of Mind. By Curtis Brown at Trinity University.

· ~~The Outsider's Guide to Artificial Intelligence. From Jorn Barger, author of ~~The Robot Wisdom Pages.

· ~~Philosophy and AI: Annotated Bibliography. From Brian Rosmaita.

· ~~Philosophy and the Neurosciences Online Resources. From Pete Mandik.

· A Philosophy of Artificial Life Bibliography. By Brian Keeley.

· ~~Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science Page. From Alan Laser.

· Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science. From Joe Lau.

· The Pre-History of Cognitive Science. From Carl Stahmer.

· The Principia Cybernetica Project. Using systems science and cybernetics to answer philosophical questions.

· Sante Fe Institute

· SIGART. The special interest group (SIG) on artificial intelligence (ART) from the Association for Computing Machinery. Has an excellent page of links.

· ~~Some Philosophy and AI Material. From Derrin Arnett.

· ~~Thoughts on Emergence. By David Chalmers.

· Turing Test competitions in real-life.

· BBC Turing Test. Also see the invitation in the press, and the summary.

· The Loebner Prize Competition. Also see Michael Mauldin's paper on the Loebner Competition, which includes some interesting detail and transcripts. Also see the 1994 winner Thom Whalen's How I Lost the [1995] Contest and Re-Evaluated Humanity.

· Turing Test 1998. From FringeWare, Inc.

· ~~The Turing Test Homepage. From Pinar Saygin and Varol Akman.

· Useful Links for Cognitive Sciences. From Wlodek Duch. A large list of links.

· WWW Resources in Cognitive Science and Philosophy of Mind. From Joe Lau. A good collection of links.

· Zombies Invade Philosophy. Papers and links on zombies by Larry Hauser.

· ~~Zombies on the Web. Links and thoughts on zombies by David Chalmers.


News and Links

Artificial Intelligence links  .....Here

Artificial Journals  .....Here


AI Magazine

Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence

 Artificial Intelligence

 Artificial Intelligence Review. "An International Survey and Tutorial Journal."

 Artificial Life

~Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Searchable.

 Canadian AI Magazine. From the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence.

Cognitive Science. "A Multidisciplinary Journal."

Cognitive Sciences. "A Journal of Literatures and Human Sciences."

Computational Intelligence. From the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence.

Connexions. "Current Research in Cognitive Science."

Consciousness and Cognition

 Cybernetics and Human Knowing: A Journal of Second Order Cybernetics and Cyber-Semiotics

 Evolutionary Computation

 IEEE Transactions Systems, Man, and Cybernetics

 IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks

 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence

 Psyche An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Consciousness.

International Journal of Applied Expert Systems

International Journal of Neural Systems

 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

 Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation

Journal of Automated Reasoning

 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

 Journal of Consciousness Studies. Abstracts only.

 Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence

 Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems

 Journal of Intelligent Information Systems

Journal of Intelligent Systems

 Machine Learning

 Minds and Machines. Journal for Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science.


 Northwest Artificial Intelligence Forum

 PC AI Magazine Popular and innovative applications of AI.

Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology (PNP) Newsletter. From the Washington University PNP doctoral program.

PC AI Magazine

Psyche A journal of research on consciousness.

 THINK Journal of the Institute for Language Technology and Artificial Intelligence.

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